Characteristics of negotiation skills include: preparation and planning skills, knowledge of the negotiated subject, ability to think clearly and quickly under pressure and uncertainty, ability to verbally express thoughts, hearing, judgment and general intelligence, integrity, ability to convince others, patience, determination, many options, conscious of the process and style of the other person , is flexible and reflective and discusses possible areas of the agreement. When both parties know their BATNAs and leave their positions, the parties should be able to communicate, evaluate the proposed agreements and, finally, identify the ZOPA. However, parties often do not know their own BATNA and even less know the BATNA on the other side. Often, the parties can pretend to have a better alternative than they really do, because the right alternatives usually lead to more power in negotiations. This is explained in more detail in the BATN trial. However, the result of such deception could be the obvious absence of ZOPA – and therefore a failure of negotiation when there was actually a ZOPA. Common uncertainties may also affect the parties` ability to assess potential agreements, as the parties may be unrealistic or pessimistic about the possibility of reaching an agreement or the value of other options.  A ZOPA exists if there is a horse between the price of booking each part (below). A negative trading area is when there is no overlap.
With a negative bargaining area, both parties can (and should) leave. As the master`s course in negotiation has shown, interaction in a negotiation is to shape the perception of ZOPA through conviction and other tactical measures, as this will lead to an agreement. If the parties to the negotiations fail to reach the ZOPA, they are in a negative negotiating area. An agreement cannot be reached in a negative negotiating area, as the needs and wishes of all parties cannot be met by an agreement reached in such circumstances. A booking price is the lowest possible price for which a negotiator would feel comfortable selling goods and services. It may also be the highest possible price that a buyer would feel comfortable paying for a product or service. The price of the booking is also known as the “walk” point and is always expressed by a number. In the same example, if you sell your car for $18,000 and are willing to sell it for $15,000, your booking price would be $15,000. It is unlikely that you will sell your car to a buyer below this amount.
ZOPA`s negotiating room is essential to the success of the negotiations. However, it may take some time for a ZOPA to be found; it can only be known when the parties consider their different interests and options. If contestants can identify ZOPA, there is a good chance they will reach an agreement. Understanding ZOPA is essential for a successful negotiation, but negotiators must first know their BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement) or “from positions”.  To determine whether there is a ZOPA, both parties must consider each other`s interests and values. This should be done at the early start of negotiations and should be adapted if more information is learned. The size of the ZOPA is also essential. If a broad APA is given, the parties could use strategies and tactics to influence distribution within the ZOPA. If the parties have a small ZOPA, the difficulty is to find pleasant conditions. Multi-party negotiations can be difficult to manage if one is not prepared to form coalitions.
The bipartisan and multi-party negotiations have important things in common: the objective of discovering, for example, the area of a possible agreement. There are, however, some important differences that distinguish them.